April 4 to April 7, 1862 – The Battle of Pittsburgh Landing better known as Shiloh

From the National Park Service:

In March, Maj. Gen. Henry W. Halleck, commanding U.S. forces in the West, advanced armies under Maj. Gens. Ulysses S. Grant and Don Carlos Buell southward to sever the Southern railroads. Grant ascended the Tennessee River by steamboat, disembarking his Army of the Tennessee at Pittsburg Landing, 22 miles northeast of Corinth. There he established a base of operations on a plateau west of the river, with his forward camps posted two miles inland around a log church called Shiloh Meeting House. Halleck had specifically instructed Grant not to engage the Confederates until he had been reinforced by Buell’s Army of the Ohio, then marching overland from Nashville. Once combined, the two armies would advance on Corinth and permanently break western Confederate railroad communications.

Bloody Shiloh…

No soldier who took part in the two day’s engagement at Shiloh ever spoiled for a fight again,” recalled one Union veteran. “We wanted a square, stand-up fight [and] got all we wanted of it.” Besides preserving the site of the bloody April 1862 battle in Tennessee, the park commemorates the subsequent siege, battle, and occupation of the key railroad junction at nearby Corinth, Mississippi.

From the history of the 28th:

April 4, 1862 – “Nothing of importance occurred until Friday night April 4, when the enemy sent out a Brigade as a feeler of our position.” General Hurlbut’s Division was put in line, and moved out on the enemy. The night was very dark, and the roads very muddy. After some heavy fighting, for a short time, the rebels fell back. The 28th moved out with the Division a mile and half, and then returned to camp.

April 6, 1862 – Early Sunday morning, April 6, the 28th was called out by the long roll into line, and marched one mile to the front. It was assigned to a position on the left of the line, in the Peach Orchard. The enemy immediately attacked it, but was repulsed with heavy loss, and the 28th held position, under great odds, from 8 o’clock a.m. until 3 o’clock p.m. At 9 o’clock a.m., General U.S. Grant and staff rode up, and the 28th was ordered to hold its position at all hazards, which it did until ordered back by General S.A. Hurlbut, commanding the old fighting Fourth Division. In the conflict the 28th lost heavily in killed and wounded. Lt. Col Kirkpatrick was among the killed, and his horse with him; Major B. C. Gilliam was badly wounded in the left shoulder and his horse killed under him; Adjutant J.B. Meade was mortally wounded and his horse killed.

April 7, 1862 – On the morning of the 7th, the 28th held a position on the right of the line and was hotly engaged until the battle closed and the victory was won.

During those two long, trying days, the Regiment behaved nobly, and was never broken or driven back by the enemy, though often heavily pressed.

The 28th Regiment of Illinois Volunteers sustained 239 killed, wounded and missing. Captain Roberts of Company K, was taken prisoner.

Estimated Casualties Total – 23,746
Union – 13,047
Confederate – 10,699

Jacob Foreman was 22 years and 4 months old.

Click on pictures to enlarge.


March 26 – March 28, 1862, Colorado in the Civil War – Battle for Glorieta Pass

While Jacob Foreman, with Company E of the 28th Volunteer Infantry from Illinois was encamped at Pittsburgh Landing in Tennessee serving on picket lines, “The Gettysburg of the West” was just beginning. The Confederate Army started marching west out of Texas to the Santa Fe Trail. The purpose was to capture the Colorado gold fields and secure funding for the Rebel army as well as reach the California coast to control the ports and shipping. However, they only got as far as Glorieta Pass in northern New Mexico Territory.

Colorado 1st Volunteer Regiment (Infantry) “Pikes Peakers – Gilpin’s Pet Lambs”
(click on picture to enlarge)

Colorado became a U.S. territory in 1861 shortly before the American Civil War began. Organized at Camp Weld in Denver by the territory’s first governor, William Gilpin, the 1st Volunteer Infantry Regiment began enlistment for the union in August 1861. Nicknamed “Gilpin’s Pet Lambs” because of the governor’s involvement in their organization, the regiment marched to northern New Mexico in February-March 1862. There they fought in the battles of Apache Canyon and Pigeon’s Ranch (also called the Battle of Glorieta Pass) and at Peralta, New Mexico. Their first colonel was John P. Slough, who resigned and was replaced by Major John M. Chivington in April 1862. The regiment’s first and only lieutenant-colonel was Samuel F. Tappan. The Colorado State Archives has custody of the casualty records, clothing issue records, some of the muster rolls, and the morning reports relating to this regiment.

This bronze figure of a Union Soldier on the west side of the state capitol building facing south towards Glorieta Pass with gun in hand was built to honor Colorado’s Civil War heroes and to promote civic pride. It is the work of Captain John D. Howland, a prominent member of the 1st Colorado Cavalry and accomplished artist. Howland studied art in Europe and Mexico and also under the tutelage of Armand Dumeresq, who was secretary to the Indian Peace Commission. Howland was also a correspondent for Harper’s Weekly. While the monument was designed by Captain Howland, J. Otto Schweizer of Philadelphia actually molded the figure. The statue was unveiled on July 24, 1909 using donations from both the taxpayers as well as the Colorado Pioneer’s Association.

The stone base of this monument is adorned with four tablets that list the battles and the names of the soldiers who died. Also chiseled into the base of this grand memorial is the proud statement that Colorado had the highest average of volunteers in the Civil War of any state or territory in the Union. Another plaque on the statue refers to the discovery of gold at Pikes Peak in 1858 by Green Russell and others. The plaque on the north face of the monument simply reads, ” For the Unknown Dead.” Originally two black walnut trees from the home of Abraham Lincoln flanked this memorial. While the trees no longer stand, there is a plaque within the capitol commemorating the generosity of President Lincoln for his donation to the beautification of our capitol.

Camp Weld

Camp Weld was located near the Platte River. This marker is located at the southwest corner at what is now Eighth Avenue and Vallejo. Several other markers still stand. I haven’t found them yet!

March 10, 1862 – Other Places, Other Happenings

Thursday, March 10 1864


From Civil War Interacative – This day in the civil War:
Newly commissioned Lt. Gen. U.S. Grant was today given an additional title: Commander of the Armies of the United States. He did not pick up the paperwork in person, though, as he was already in Virginia holding a rather touchy meeting with Gen. George G. Meade, who still held the title of commander of the Army of the Potomac. The two needed to work out ways to work together, as Grant planned to operate in the field with an army that had been commanded by Meade since just before Gettysburg. In fact the two worked out one of the great partnerships of the War when Meade, unlike his more egotistical predecessors, sent Grant a statement offering his services in whatever capacity Grant thought he would be most useful. In the end Grant kept him in command of the Army of the Potomac, which freed Grant from many onerous administrative duties.

Civil War Florida

A blog by Southern writer and historian Dale Cox, Civil War Florida shares information on and discusses the events of the Civil War in Florida. Topics of interest include troops, battles, skirmishes, campaigns, raids, forts, naval actions, ships, soldiers, officers, books and historic sites.

March 10, 1862 – The Women of St. Augustine chop down the flag staff
Castillo de San Marcos (Fort Marion)
St. Augustine, Florida

Having captured Fernandina and Amelia Island on March 4, 1862, the Union fleet next directed its attention to Jacksonville and St. Augustine.

The Confederacy already had decided to evacuate positions all along its southeastern coast in favor of strengthening key points and developing an interior system of defense. The concept was developed by General Robert E. Lee of Virginia. He had not yet ascended to the command of the Army of Northern Virginia and was then commanding in East Florida, Georgia and the Carolinas.

Castillo de San Marcos National Monument
Unfortunately for Florida, Lee considered the nation’s oldest city of St. Augustine as not important enough expending resources for its defense. The troops there were ordered to load up their supplies and withdraw. And as had been the case at Fernandina, they did so just as the masts of the Union warships appeared on the horizon.

The departure of the Confederate troops from St. Augustine took place 150 years ago today (March 10, 1862). Behind they left a city filled with civilians, many of whom were highly displeased that their community was being abandoned to the Union Navy. This sentiment was particularly prominent among the women of St. Augustine:

St. Francis Barracks in St. Augustine, Florida
…There is much violent and pestilent feeling among the women. They seem to mistake treason for courage, and have a theatrical desire to figure as heroines. Their minds have doubtless been filled with falsehoods so industriously circulated in regard to the lust and hatred of our troops. – C.R.P. Rogers, U.S. Navy, March 13, 1862.

So angry were the women of St. Augustine that their city and the ancient ramparts of the Castillo de San Marcos (then called Fort Marion) were being left undefended that they gathered in front of the city’s St. Francis Barracks on the night of March 10th:

…On the night before our arrival a party of women assembled in front of the barracks and cut down the flagstaff in order that it might not be used to support the old flag. The men seemed anxious to conciliate in every way. – C.R.P. Rogers, U.S. Navy, March 13, 1862.

The Union Navy would arrive in St. Augustine the next day. I will post on the 150th anniversary of that event tomorrow, so be sure to check back then. You can read more about the historic city of St. Augustine anytime at http://www.exploresouthernhistory.com/staugustine1.

Posted by Dale Cox at 2:57 PM

150 Years Ago – Our Ancestors Journey through the Civil War

Jacob Foreman in his Civil War Uniform About 1862-63

Jacob Foreman, the third child of David Foreman and Elizabeth Horine was born in 1793 in Kentucky. After his father David, died in 1811, Jacob served from November 1814 to May of 1815 in the War of 1812 with Captain George McAfee’s Company, Kentucky detached militia – Commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Gabriel Slaughter.

After Jacob returned from the War of 1812, Elizabeth Horine Foreman claimed land in Ohio her brother left her after his death. ‘Eli’ as she was called, had to fight the courts in Ohio because at that time women were not allowed to own land. Eli prevailed and she and her seven sons, including Jacob, moved from Kentucky to Buford, Highland County, Ohio.

In 1833 Jacob Foreman married Margaret Briggs, they had ten children. Just before 1851 the family moved to Time, Pike County, Illinois. Their second child, William Foreman born in 1835 enrolled in Company B, Twenty-eighth Infantry Regiment of Illinois. He mustered August 26, 1861 from Springfield, Illinois but died of typhoid fever on February 27, 1862 in Paducah, Kentucky. Their sixth child was named Jacob, born December 7, 1840. It is this Jacob Foreman who enlisted as a private on November 1, 1861, Company B, Twenty-eighth Infantry Regiment of Illinois that I will follow on his journey through the Civil War 150 years ago.

Later this year I will add Edwin R. Squires who enlisted on August 21, 1862 in the Thirty-third Infantry Regiment of Wisconsin for his journey through the Civil War.

Edwin Squires was the father of Grace Irene Squires who married Robert Sidney (Sid) Foreman the son of Jacob Foreman. Grace and Sid were the parents of Mary Frances Foreman Hancock.

What I have learned is remarkable and I am eager to share this information with you.